Personal injury law means the remedies which you have, if you have suffered because of the wrongful conduct of another person. It allows you to seek compensation from the guilty party. 
Some common example of " Personal Injury" cases are: 
1. Accidents: Most personal injury cases are because of negligence of the guilty party. For example, if you have been hit by a car, then you can sue the driver for negligence. It is the responsibility of the driver to exercise reasonable care while driving the car. If he fails to perform his duty properly, then he is guilty and the court will force him to pay the necessary amount of damages. 

2. Intentional Acts: These laws will also apply in cases where there is clear intent by the guilty party. For example, if someone assaults you, then you can file a personal injury suit against them. 

3. Defective items: If a company sells you a defective product and you suffer because of it, then also you can sue them. 

4. Defamation: Defamation also falls under this category. It happens when someone releases a statement in public which affects your reputation. 

Settlement of personal injury cases: 
1. Formal Settlement: In case of a criminal case, it is the responsibility of the government to initiate the proceedings . But in these kind of cases, the injured party (plaintiff) files a suit against the person who caused the injury (defendant), claiming that they acted reckless, as a result of which you suffered the damage. Depending on the nature of the case, the court will fix the compensation.

2. Informal Settlement: Generally, court cases are very time consuming and also expensive. Hence, most of the times, both the parties settles the matter outside the court. The lawyers and the insurers representing both the parties comes together to strike a deal. After some negotiation, an amount is decided which the defendant has to pay to resolve the case.